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သက္နိုင္ထြန္း
05-15-2009, 06:18 PM
AIA American Insurance Association
ANSI American National Standards Institute
API American Petroleum Institute
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
AWS American Welding Society
AWWA American Waterworks Association
FCI Fluid Controls Institute
GSA General Service Administration
ISA Instrument Society of America
MSS Manufacturers' Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
PFI Pipe Fabrication Institute
USDC United States Department of Commerce
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Regulation, Code

Design of the piping system shall obey the regulation firstly and two or more regulations may be applied on the piping system.
At the time, the design shall obey each regulation because each one has each difference objective. Almost all regulations provide only minimum requirements. Therefore, the code or standard is required for supplement to the regulation. However, the designer is cautioned that the code or standard is not a design handbook. The code or standard does not do away with the need for the designer or competent engineering judgment.

Pressure piping codes in USA are as follows:

(1) ANSI/ASME B31.1- Power Piping
This code shall be applied to the piping systems for electric generation stations, industrial and institutional plants, control and district heating plants.

(2)ANSI/ASME B31.2- Fuel Gas Piping
This code shall be applied to the piping systems for fuel gases such as natural gas, manufactured gas, liquified petroleum gas(LPG)-air mixtures above the upper combustible limit, liquified petroleum gas(LPG) in the gaseous phase, or mixtures of these gases.

(3)ANSI/ASME B31.3- Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping
This code shall be applied to the piping systems handling all fluids, including fluidized solids, and to all types of service including raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals. This code covers all piping within the property limits of facilities engaged in the processing or handling of chemical, petroleum, or related products such as a chemical plant, petroleum refinery, loading terminal, natural gas processing plant (including liquified natural gas facilities), bulk plant, compound plant and tank farm.

(4)ANSI/ASME B31.4- Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping Systems
This code shall be applied to the piping systems transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquified petroleum gas, liquid anhydrous ammonia and liquid petroleum products between producer's lease facilities, tankfarms, natural gas processing plants, refineries, stations,ammonia plants, terminals (marine, rail and track), and other delivery and receiving plants.

(5)ANSI/ASME B31.5- Refrigeration Piping
This code shall be applied to refrigerant and brine piping for temperature as low as -320'F.

(6)ANSI/ASME B31.8- Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
This code shall be applied to gas transmission and distribution systems including gas pipelines, gas compressor stations, gas metering and regulating stations, gas mains and service lines up to the outlet of the customer's meter set assembly.
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PIPING COMPONENTS
Piping Components ေတြကေတာ့

1.Pipe ပို္က္
2.Flange Joints ပိုက္ဆက္တဲ့ေနရာမွာ သုံးတဲ့ပစၥည္း
2.1 Gaskets
2.2 Bolting

3.Fittings ပိုက္လမ္းေၾကာင္းအတြက္ ပစၥည္း
3.1 Elbows
3.2 Bends
3.3 Tees
3.4 Reducers

4.Valves အရည္ကိုထိန္းခ်ဳပ္တဲ့ပစၥည္း
4.1 Gate
4.2 Globe
4.3 Angle
4.4 Needle
4.5 Check
4.6 Cock/Plug
4.7 Ball
4.8 Butterfly

5.Special components အရည္အတြက္ အျခားလုိအပ္တဲ့ပစၥည္း
5.1 Steam Traps

5.2 Strainers
5.3 Expansion Joints
5.4 Universal Joints
5.5 Flexible Hose
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ဘယ္လုိ material ေတြနဲ႔ထုတ္လုိ႔ရသလဲ

Pipe are classified mainly by MATERIAL and SIZE.
MATERIAL PIPE CLASSIFICATION
Cast Iron Iron Pipe
Ductile Iron
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Carbon Steel Steel Pipe
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Low-alloy steel Ferrous Pipe
Stainless steel
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Aluminium/ Al Alloy Non-ferrous Pipe
Copper/Cu Alloy
Lead
Brass
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Rubber tubing Non-metallic pipe
Plastic
Asbestos
Hume (Concrete)
Glass
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Pipe are also availabe with a variety of linings, such as polyethylene, cement-mortar, glass, etc.

Most countries have a standard regulating for the pipe outer diameter, wall thickness and their tolerances, in which a Nominal Pipe Size(NPS) is adopted. So, as long as the pipes and pipe fittings have an identical nominal pipe size, they can be joined together regardless of their inner diameters.

There are two measurement systems used for the nominal pipe size: the inch system used in the USA and UK,etc. and the metric system used in most other countries. Both of these systems are employed in Japan.
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ပိုက္ေတြကိုဘယ္လုပ္ထုတ္လုပ္မွာလဲ (Pipe Manufacturing Methods)
Steel pipes are further classified by the fabrication method employed.
There are two main processes.
1. Seamless steel pipe, fabricated from a solid billet of steel
2. Welded steel pipe, fabricated from steel plates shaped by a press or rollers.
There are two types of pipe in manufacturing service: Seamless pipe and Welded pipe.
Welded pipe ကိုထုတ္လုပ္တဲ့ေနရာမွာ ႏွစ္နည္းရွိပါတယ္။ EFW: Electric Fusion Weld နဲ႔ ERW: Electric Resistance Weld ဆိုၿပီးေတာ့ပါ
(၁)Spiral Pipe (၂)ERW Pipe (၃)Furnace Butt Weld Pipe (၄)EFW Pipe တို႔ဟာ welded pipe ေတြပါ။

ေ႐ြးခ်ယ္တာကိုေတာ့ Project specification (Client requirement) ေပၚမူူတည္ၿပီးေ႐ြးခ်ယ္ပါတယ္.
ဒါေပ့မယ္ if there is no requirement by Client, the Contractor shall decide as follows (General)
MANUF. METHOD BASIC MATERIAL SIZE RANGE
Seamless Pipe Carbon Steel (General Process) 1/2"-24"
Carbon Steel (Utility Service) 1/2"-2"
Low Alloy Steel 1/2"-24"
Stainless Steel 1/2"-6"(8")
Welded Pipe Carbon Steel (GP) 26" and larger
C S (U P) 2-1/2" and larger
Low Alloy steel 26" and larger
Stainless 8"(10") and larger
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ပိုက္ေတြကို ဘယ္ေတြေပၚမွာမူတည္ၿပီးေ႐ြးခ်ယ္မွာလဲ?

When selecting the type of pipe to be utilized for a specific operation, various factors must be taken into consideration, as follows:
(1) Operating conditions: These include the kind of fluid, operating temperature and pressure.
(2) Material strength: This includes the loading type and aging.
(3) Material resistance to corrosion.
(4) Restrictionns imposed by process requirements.
(5) The requirements given in the applicable codes and standards, such as ANSI,BS,etc. ဒီအခ်က္ကေတာ့ ထူးျခားေနပါတယ္။ဘာလုိဒီကုဒ္ေတြကုိသုံးၾကတာလဲ။

Many other factors must be taken into account, such as economic efficiency, which includes marketability and interchangeability, and workability, such as weldability and machinablility. Thus the selection of the pipe must be made with care and forethought.

The material most widely used for process piping is CARBON STEEL, because of its favorable characteristics, as follows:
(1) Strength and ductility
(2) Machinability and weldability
(3) Adjustable characteristics through composition changes and heat treatment
(4) High availability and low cost production
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1.Pipe
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2.FLANGE JOINTS (ပိုက္ေတြဆက္တဲ့ေနရာမွာ အေရးႀကီးဆုံးပစၥည္းျဖစ္တဲ့ အရာ)

2.1 General
A flange joint consists of two flanges, with a gasket between them, tightly secured together by bolting.

Flange joint ေတြကိုဘာလုိ႔သုံးလဲ?

Flange joints are used where a quick and easy assembly and disassembly of piping is required, as in the following cases
(1)With equipments
(2)With instruments
(3)With valves
(4)With piping of different materials
(5)with other piping components, such as strainers and steam traps,
(6)Where frequent piping assembly and disassembly are required.
(7)with headers.

*Recently, however, flange joints are used only when absolutely necessary, as they tend to cause leakages. ဒါအဓိက အားနည္းခ်က္ပဲ။

2.2 Classification
ဒီ Flange joint ေတြကို အမ်ိဳးအစားေတြခြဲထားသလားလုိ႔ ေမးရင္ေတာ့ ခြဲထားတယ္လုိ႔ပဲ ေျဖရမွာပဲ။
Flange joints are classified by the type of flange connection to the pipe, and by the type of flange facing.
Connection အရ ခြဲထားေတြကေတာ့ (Classification by connection type are) 1.welding-neck
2.slip-on-weld
3.socket-weld
4.lap (Van stone)
5.Screwed တို႔ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

Facing ေတြအရေတာ့ အမ်ားႀကီးရွိပါတယ္ ၿပီးေတာ့ သုံးတဲ့ service အလုိက္ေ႐ြးခ်ယ္ပါတယ္ (Figure facings come in various types and are selected in accordance with the kind of service in which they are to be used)
An important factor in selecting the type of facing is the shape of the gasket seat; this must ensure the optimum gasket flow when the faces are bolted together. bolt ညႇပ္လုိက္ရင္ ေဘးကိုကားထြက္လာတာကို gasket flow လို႔ေခၚတယ္။
Facing ေတြအရ ခြဲထားတဲ့ Flange ေတြကေတာ့ 1.Flat face
2.Raised face
3.Male-female face
4.Tongue-groove face
5.Ring joint face

2.3 GASKET
A gasket is inserted between the contact facings of the flange to seal or plug any irregularities in those facings and prevent leaks.
အသုံးျပဳတဲ့ gasket type သုံးမ်ိဳးပဲရွိပါတယ္ (There are three types of gaskets used: non-metallic, semimetallic and metallic.)
(1)Nonmetallic Gaskets
A feature of nonmetallic gasket is their softness, when compared with metallic gaskets. (ေပ်ာ့တယ္)
These gaskets are used over a wide range of services, as they possess a reasonable elasticity and strength. (Elasticity and strength ႀကိဳက္လုိ႔)
Nonmetallic gaskets are fabricated of a combination of several of the following materials: ဒီလုိပစၥည္းေတြကေန ထုတ္ပါတယ္တဲ့
(a) Asbestos
(b) Synthetic resin (tetrafluoroethylene, polyester, nylon, etc)
(c) Rubber (natural rubber, nitrile rubber (NBR),neoprene rubber (CR), isobutylene-isoprene rubber (IIR), styrene rubber (SBR), fluoro-rubber (Viton), and silicone rubber, etch.)
(d)Organic materials (leather, cotton, hemp, jute, cork, etc.)

(2)Semimetallic Gaskets

Semimetallic gaskets are fabricated of a combination of metallic and nonmetallic materials, and are applicable over a wide temperature and pressure range. The advantages of metallic gaskets are utilized by compensating for the inferior elasticity of metal with preshaped profiles and by the use of metallic in combination with nonmetallic materials.
ွSemimetallic gaskets are of mainly three types: wire-mesh compressed asbestos sheeting, vortex type gaskets, and various kinds of metallic-coated gaskets. သုံးမ်ိဳးေတာင္ရွိတယ္

(3)Metallic Gasket

Metallic gaskets are used where the temperature or pressure, or both, cannot be withstood by nonmetallic or semimetallic gaskets.

Metallic gasket ေတြက ခုနနွစ္ခု မရတဲ့ အရာမ်ိဳးမွာသုံးတယ္။
ဘယ္ႏွစ္မ်ိဳးရွိလဲဆိုေတာ့ ၄ မ်ိဳးေတာင္ရွိတယ္

Corrugated Soft aluminum
Iron or Soft Steel
Serrated Soft copper or Brass (4 to 6 % Cr)
Monel
Flat Stainless Steel
Ring Joint(Oval) Iron or Soft Steel (4 to 6% Cr)
Monel
(Octa) Stainless Steel


Post တစ္ခု အေနနဲ႔ ခဏတင္ထားျခင္းျဖစ္သျဖင့္ စာမ်ားမွာ ပုံစံမက်ေသးပါ..ေခတၱခဏ သည္းခံေပးပါရန္...

HarryLwin
05-16-2009, 06:36 AM
Pressure piping codes in USA are as follows:

(4)ANSI/ASME B31.4- Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping Systems
This code shall be applied to the piping systems transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquified petroleum gas, liquid anhydrous ammonia and liquid petroleum products between producer's lease facilities, tankfarms, natural gas processing plants, refineries, stations,ammonia plants, terminals (marine, rail and track), and other delivery and receiving plants.


(6)ANSI/ASME B31.8- Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
This code shall be applied to gas transmission and distribution systems including gas pipelines, gas compressor stations, gas metering and regulating stations, gas mains and service lines up to the outlet of the customer's meter set assembly.


ကုိသက္ႏုိင္ထြန္းေရ ...
အခုလို တန္ဖိုးရွိတဲ့ ပို႔စ္ေတြ တင္ေပးတာ အမ်ားႀကီး ေက်းဇူးတင္ပါတယ္
ဖိုရမ္အတြက္လည္း ဝမ္းသာအားတက္မိပါတယ္
တခု ေတာ့ မသိတဲ့သူေတြအမွတ္မွားမွာစိုးလို႔ ေျပာပါရေစ ...
တကယ္ေတာ့ Piping နဲ႔ Pipeline ဟာ သဘာဝခ်င္းကြာျခားပါတယ္။ Design က အစ မတူပါဘူး။ Material, Construction, Maintenance အပိုင္းေတြ မွာလည္း လံုးဝ ကဲြျပားပါတယ္။

ASME B31.4 နဲ႔ ASME B31.8 တုိ႔ဟာ Pipeline အတြက္ Code ေတြျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ မသိတဲ့သူေတြ Piping အတြက္ မွားသံုးမိမွာစိုးလို႔ ေျပာတာပါ။
ေနာက္ၿပီး သူတို႔ေတြကို onshore pipeline အတြက္သာ အသံုးမ်ားပါတယ္။ Offshore pipeline အတြက္လည္း သံုးလို႔ေတာ့ ရပါတယ္။ ဒါေပမဲ့ ႈOffshore pipeline အတြက္အသံုးမ်ားတာက DNV-OS-F101 ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ (အရင္ကေတာ့ DNV-81, DNV-97, DNV 2000 ဆုိၿပီး ေခၚရာကေန အခု နာမည္ ေျပာင္းလိုက္တာပါ)
နာမည္ေတြမွာ Piping System လို႔ေရးထားေပမဲ့ တကယ္ေတာ့ Pipeline အတြက္သာ သံုးရမွာျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ကိုသက္ႏုိင္ထြန္း တင္ထားတဲ့ပို႔စ္ေတြကို စိတ္ဝင္တစား ဖတ္ထားပါတယ္။ Piping အတြက္ အလြန္အက်ိဳးရွိပါတယ္။ ဆက္လက္ေစာင့္ေမွ်ာ္ေနပါမယ္ ...

သက္နိုင္ထြန္း
05-16-2009, 07:29 AM
Pressure piping codes in USA are as follows:

(4)ANSI/ASME B31.4- Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping Systems
This code shall be applied to the piping systems transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquified petroleum gas, liquid anhydrous ammonia and liquid petroleum products between producer's lease facilities, tankfarms, natural gas processing plants, refineries, stations,ammonia plants, terminals (marine, rail and track), and other delivery and receiving plants.


(6)ANSI/ASME B31.8- Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
This code shall be applied to gas transmission and distribution systems including gas pipelines, gas compressor stations, gas metering and regulating stations, gas mains and service lines up to the outlet of the customer's meter set assembly.


ကုိသက္ႏုိင္ထြန္းေရ ...
အခုလို တန္ဖိုးရွိတဲ့ ပို႔စ္ေတြ တင္ေပးတာ အမ်ားႀကီး ေက်းဇူးတင္ပါတယ္
ဖိုရမ္အတြက္လည္း ဝမ္းသာအားတက္မိပါတယ္
တခု ေတာ့ မသိတဲ့သူေတြအမွတ္မွားမွာစိုးလို႔ ေျပာပါရေစ ...
တကယ္ေတာ့ Piping နဲ႔ Pipeline ဟာ သဘာဝခ်င္းကြာျခားပါတယ္။ Design က အစ မတူပါဘူး။ Material, Construction, Maintenance အပိုင္းေတြ မွာလည္း လံုးဝ ကဲြျပားပါတယ္။

ASME B31.4 နဲ႔ ASME B31.8 တုိ႔ဟာ Pipeline အတြက္ Code ေတြျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ မသိတဲ့သူေတြ Piping အတြက္ မွားသံုးမိမွာစိုးလို႔ ေျပာတာပါ။
ေနာက္ၿပီး သူတို႔ေတြကို onshore pipeline အတြက္သာ အသံုးမ်ားပါတယ္။ Offshore pipeline အတြက္လည္း သံုးလို႔ေတာ့ ရပါတယ္။ ဒါေပမဲ့ ႈOffshore pipeline အတြက္အသံုးမ်ားတာက DNV-OS-F101 ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ (အရင္ကေတာ့ DNV-81, DNV-97, DNV 2000 ဆုိၿပီး ေခၚရာကေန အခု နာမည္ ေျပာင္းလိုက္တာပါ)
နာမည္ေတြမွာ Piping System လို႔ေရးထားေပမဲ့ တကယ္ေတာ့ Pipeline အတြက္သာ သံုးရမွာျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ကိုသက္ႏုိင္ထြန္း တင္ထားတဲ့ပို႔စ္ေတြကို စိတ္ဝင္တစား ဖတ္ထားပါတယ္။ Piping အတြက္ အလြန္အက်ိဳးရွိပါတယ္။ ဆက္လက္ေစာင့္ေမွ်ာ္ေနပါမယ္ ...



ေက်းဇူးတင္ပါတယ္ခင္ဗ်ာ...ကၽြန္ေတာ္က ဒီ Field ထဲ ဝင္ေရာက္စ အင္ဂ်င္နီယာ ေပါက္စပါ...ဒါေၾကာင့္ အစ္ကိုတို႔ လမ္းညႊန္ေပးပါဦိး...ကၽြန္ေတာ္က အခု Training ဆင္းေနတုန္းပါ...ဒါေၾကာင့္ Training မွာ သင္ရတဲ႔ မွတ္စုေတြကို အြန္လိုင္းေပၚမွာ သိမ္းရင္း အျခားသူေတြလည္း ဖတ္လုိ႔ရေအာင္ တင္လုိက္တာပါ...ဒါေၾကာင့္ အခ်ိဳ႔ဟာေတြဆုိ contractor ရဲ႕ သီးသန္႔ standard ေတြပါေနပါတယ္...
အစ္ကို...ကၽြန္ေတာ္နားလည္မႈလြဲၿပီးေရးထားတာလုိ ထင္ရင္ လွမ္းၿပီး ေဆြးေႏြးေပးပါခင္ဗ်ာ..