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Thread: Problem Oriented Approach to Obstetrics & Gynacecology

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    Senior Member rolley is an unknown quantity at this point rolley's Avatar
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    Vaccinia virus
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    vaccinia virus infection
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    Last edited by rolley; 01-22-2012 at 08:26 AM.

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    8. medication in pregnancy



    Medication Use during Pregnancy: Risk Factors for Birth Defects?

    Like many families affected by birth defects, CDC wants to find out what causes them. Understanding risk factors, such as certain medications, that might increase the chance of having a baby with a birth defect will help us learn more about the causes. Better information on the safety or risk of specific medications will allow women and their doctors to make informed decisions about treatment during pregnancy.


    Antibiotics and Birth Defects
    During pregnancy, women can get more infections – germs that cause disease – because of all the changes in their bodies. So we were not surprised that the use of antibiotics – drugs that fight infections – goes up during pregnancy. Antibiotics were most often used during the fourth month of pregnancy.

    We also looked at the link between antibiotics and birth defects. Antibiotics most used were penicillins, erythromycins, and cephalosporins. Generally, women who used these drugs did not show greater risk for birth defects. But we did see some links between the drugs sulfonamides (such as Bactrim) and nitrofurantoins (such as Macrobid) and birth defects. Women most often use these drugs for urinary tract infections. But we cannot be sure that the drugs caused the birth defects. It is very important to treat infections. Women should talk to their doctors about which antibiotics are safest to use during pregnancy.




    Children whose mothers were prescribed the antiseizure medication
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    One of the risks of pregnancy involves developing deep
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    New Blood Test for Down Syndrome
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    the fluid on the back of the baby's neck
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    When DS is suspected, a blood test will be done for study
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    Last edited by rolley; 01-23-2012 at 01:43 AM.

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    9. vaginal discharge in obstetrics



    Disease may be indicated if vaginal discharge is abnormal in colo
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    Last edited by rolley; 01-23-2012 at 01:48 AM.

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    Advanced Member dudugyi is on a distinguished road dudugyi's Avatar
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    ဟုတ္တယ္ အကို၊ အၿဖဴဆင္းတယ္ဆိုတာကလည္း yeast အေနနဲ႔ သဘာဝအတိုင္း၊ ဆင္းတာရိွသလို vaginal yeast infection နဲ႔ cervical infection တို႔ေႀကာင္႔ ဆင္းတာရိွပါတယ္။ vaginal discharge ဆိုတဲ႔ သဘာဝအတိုင္းေမြးတဲ႔အခါ၊ vaginal yeast infection ရိွေနတဲ႔ အေမေႀကာင္႔ ကေလးဟာ၊ မၽက္စိကြယ္သြားတာရိွပါတယ္။ ေနာက္တခုက cervical infection ပါ။ အရမ္းေႀကာက္စရာေကာင္းပါတယ္။ ကေလးဟာ တသက္လံုးမသန္မစြမ္းၿဖစ္သြားနိဳင္ပါတယ္။ အဲဒီလို ကေလးေတြ ဒူဒူ ေတြ႔ဖူးပါတယ္။ အထူးသၿဖင္႔ အေနာက္ နိဳင္ငံေတြမွာ မဟုတ္ပဲ အေရွ႕တိုင္းနိဳင္ငံေတြမွာပါ။ vaginal yeast infection နဲ႔ cervical infection တို႔ဟာ အစားအေသာက္ထက္ တကိုယ္သန္႔ရွင္းေရးဆိုတဲ႔ personal hygiene ေႀကာင္႔ infection အေနနဲ႔၊ vaginal ထဲမွာ ရိွေနတတ္ပါတယ္။ ဒါ႔အၿပင္ metabolism ဆိုတဲ႔ ဇီဝကမၼၿဖစ္စဥ္ကို၊ မခိၽန္ညွိနိဳင္ခင္ ကိုယ္ဝန္ေဆာင္ရတဲ႔ မိခင္ေတြမွာလည္း vaginal yeast infection နဲ႔ cervical infection ၿဖစ္တတ္ပါတယ္။ အထူးသၿဖင္႔ နိဳင္ငံရပ္ၿခားမွာ အလုပ္လုပ္ရင္း၊ ကိုယ္ဝန္ေဆာင္ရတဲ႔ မိခင္ေလာင္းေတြမွာပါ။

    ကိုယ္ဝန္ေဆာင္ကာလေတြမွာ vaginal ဆိုတဲ႔၊ ေမြးလမ္းေႀကာင္းထဲမွ acid နဲ႔ base အခၽိဳးအဆကို၊ ပံုမွန္တိုင္းရပါတယ္။ ၿမန္မာၿပည္မွာေတာ႔ တိုင္းမတိုင္း ဒူဒူ မသိပါ။ တိုင္းတာကလည္း လြယ္ပါတယ္။ stick ကေလးနဲ႔ sample ယူလိုက္ တာပါ။ ေနာက္ေန႔ဆို အေၿဖသိရပါတယ္။ လရင္႔လာလို႔ ေမြးကာနီးေလ ပိုသတိထားရပါတယ္။ ကိုယ္ဝန္ေဆာင္ကာလ မို႔ ပဋိဇီဝဆိုတဲ႔ anti-biotic ေတြေပးၿပီး၊ yeast ေတြကိုလည္းသတ္လို႔မရပါဘူး။ due date ရဲ႕ (၂) ပါတ္အလိုမွာ ထပ္တိုင္းၿပီး၊ yeast ရိွေနတယ္ဆိုရင္ ခြဲေမြးလိုက္တာအေကာင္းဆံုးပါ။

    အကို အစံုေရးနိဳင္ေအာင္ အခၽက္အလက္ေတြရွာေပးတဲ႔ မမေဒါက္တာကိုလည္း၊ ေကၽးဇူးတင္ပါတယ္။
    Last edited by dudugyi; 01-26-2012 at 07:42 PM.
    ဒူဒူ ဟာ အူတူတူ လူ တေယာက္ပါ။ http://dudugyi.blogspot.com

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  9. #15
    Senior Member rolley is an unknown quantity at this point rolley's Avatar
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    10. backache in pregnancy

    back pain pregnancy first trimester
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    SECOND TRIMESTER
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    Third trimester (28 to 40 weeks)
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    Last edited by rolley; 01-26-2012 at 08:57 PM.
    ေလာင္ကၽြမ္းထားၿပီးသား
    ေနာက္ထပ္ရဲရဲ ေတာက္ေလာင္အုန္းမယ့္
    ပုန္းေနတဲ့မီးခဲ
    မည္းမည္းသဲသဲေပမယ့္
    ျပာေတာ့မက်ေသးဘူးေလ။ ။ ‘ေအာင္ျမင္တဲ့ပုဂၢိဳလ္တုိင္းဟာ အခြင့္ အလမ္းမ်ားကုိ မလုိခ်င္ေတာ့ဘူးလုိ႔ ဘယ္ တုန္းကမွ မညည္းတြားခဲ့ၾကပါ’
    ရဗ္ေဝါဒုိ အီမာဆန္(၁၈ဝ၃-၁၈၈၂)
    အေမရိကန္ကဗ်ာဆရာ၊ စာေရးဆရာ ေတြးေခၚပညာရွင္

    Give me six hours to chop down a tree, and I will spend the first four hours sharpening the axe.
    Abraham Lincoln

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  11. #16
    Senior Member rolley is an unknown quantity at this point rolley's Avatar
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    TREATING INJURIES : ARTICLES
    Treating Scald Burns



    Image credit to :http://www.thechildren.com/data/cond.../346_photo.jpg

    Here is how you can treat scald burns.
    There are 3 types of burns:
    1st-degree burns: are limited to the upper skin layer. They produce redness, tenderness, pain, swelling and slight fever.
    2nd-degree burns: affect deeper skin layers. Symptoms are more severe and usually include blisters.
    3rd-degree burns: involve all skin layers. Area is white and there may be no pain in the initial stages.
    Scald burns are burns caused by hot liquids and steam.


    1st-degree burns: are limited to the upper skin layer. They produce redness, tenderness, pain, swelling and slight fever.



    ေရေႏြးပူေလာင္ရင္
    ေသြးေၾကာနံရံေတြက်ယ္လာျပီး PG,histamine ထုတ္ပါတယ္။
    ေရခဲကပ္ေပးျခင္း၊
    ေရခဲေရစိမ္ထားေသာအ၀တ္ျဖင့္ပတ္ေပးျခင္း

    ျဖင့္သက္သာေျပာက္ကင္းေစပါတယ္။







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    Last edited by rolley; 12-25-2012 at 01:19 AM.
    ေလာင္ကၽြမ္းထားၿပီးသား
    ေနာက္ထပ္ရဲရဲ ေတာက္ေလာင္အုန္းမယ့္
    ပုန္းေနတဲ့မီးခဲ
    မည္းမည္းသဲသဲေပမယ့္
    ျပာေတာ့မက်ေသးဘူးေလ။ ။ ‘ေအာင္ျမင္တဲ့ပုဂၢိဳလ္တုိင္းဟာ အခြင့္ အလမ္းမ်ားကုိ မလုိခ်င္ေတာ့ဘူးလုိ႔ ဘယ္ တုန္းကမွ မညည္းတြားခဲ့ၾကပါ’
    ရဗ္ေဝါဒုိ အီမာဆန္(၁၈ဝ၃-၁၈၈၂)
    အေမရိကန္ကဗ်ာဆရာ၊ စာေရးဆရာ ေတြးေခၚပညာရွင္

    Give me six hours to chop down a tree, and I will spend the first four hours sharpening the axe.
    Abraham Lincoln

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